The Liberal leaders did not hold their banquet, but the barricades began to rise in the working-class streets. From that time onwards Pio Nono became, like Charles Albert, an unwilling figurehead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
This organisation eventually split into Marxist and Anarchist wings, and the anarchists remained the most important group in Spain, as well as for many years playing an influential part in the French, Italian, Russian and American working-class movements.
This body decided to convoke a National Assembly, based on universal suffrage, which it was expected would become the federal organ of the German nation, with the power to over-ride the will of princes, whether large or small.
Everywhere the more conservative elements began to take the lead. The movements offrustrated as they may have been in their achievements, were accompanied by a crystallisation of the political ideas which were later to become foundations for important social movements.
From January to March the Imperial armies fighting in Hungary met with continual defeats, while new insurrections broke out in Italy.
In March, protests in the German provinces brought swift reform from local princes while Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia yielded to revolts in Berlin by promising to create a Prussian assembly.
Assisted by the Pope, the princelings of Germany, and the rulers of those parts of Italy which, like Tuscany and Naples, were nominally independent, he had maintained as far as possible an almost absolute form of dynastic government, based on an aristocratic society.
Austrian troops began to assemble for the expedition against Hungary. During the late summer of the Emperor began to feel sufficiently confident to return to autocratic methods, so much did events appear to have turned to his advantage.
The conflict between the two sections into which the movement of February had split now became more intense than ever.